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5 Notes about…Apellidos

Corporate Spanish Trainer

8 de julio de 2017
Review Post: primero de julio


Hola y gracias por estar aquí,


El sábado pasado hablamos de Names y Nicknames, hoy hablamos de los apellidos.


1. Using señor, señora & señorita


A. If you don’t know the person and you want to get their attention, you could say:

Disculpe, Señor. – Excuse me, Sir.
Disculpe, Señora. – Excuse me, Ma’am/Ms.
Disculpe, Señorita. – Excuse me, Miss.

Señora is used for a married woman or older
Senorita is used to address a younger, not married young lady



B. If you know the person and are being more formal when talking directly to them, you would use the title above with their last name.

Buenos días, Señor Garcia. – Good morning, Mr. Garcia.
Buenas tardes, Señora Acevedo. – Good afternoon, Mrs. Acevedo.
Buenas tardes, Señorita Trujillo. – Good evening, Miss Trujillo.


C. If you are taking about the person and they are not present, you would say the following:

El Señor Romero es mi vecino. – Mr. Romero is my neighbor.
La Señora Hernández está en su oficina. – Mrs. Hernandez is in her office.
La Señorita Vargas es muy buena maestra. – Miss. Vargas is a really good teacher.



2. When you mention a family to say, for example, the Smiths, in Spanish use…

Los + the last name in the singular

Ejemplo: Los Martínez viven en México. – The Martinez’ live in México.



3. It’s common that Spanish-speakers have 2 last names.

Pablo Ruiz Picasso
The first last name, Ruiz, es de su padre. El segundo, Picasso, es de su mamá.

If you are alphabetizing by last name, typically you would file under the first last name.


4. Last names ending in –ez translate as, hijo de...

In English there are last names such as Peterson, which means son of Peter

Johnson, son of John

In Spanish, -ez is similar

Martínez – hijo de Martín
Rodríguez – hijo de Rodrigo
González – hijo de Gonzalo
Sánchez – hijo de Sancho


5. Some last names translate into other words.

Castillo – castle
Cruz – cross
Delgado – thin
Hidalgo – nobleman
Reyes – kings
Rios – rivers
Rubio – blonde



Action steps:
1. Observe last names and notice if they fit into any of these categories.
2. Practice using rules 1, 2 & 3 above.
3. Come back tomorrow. It’s Focus on a Country day!



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Gracias y hasta pronto,